The Civil Code of the Russian Federation(with the Additions and Amendments of February 20, August 12, 1996,
October 24, 1997, July 8, December 17, 1999, April 16, May 15,
November 26, 2001, March 21, November 14, 26, 2002,
January 10, March 26, November 11, December 23, 2003)
Chapter 8. The Non-Material Values and Their Protection
Article 150. The Non-Material Values
1. The life and health, the personal dignity and personal immunity, the honour and good name, the business reputation, the immunity of private life, the personal and family secret, the right of a free movement, of the choice of the place of stay and residence, the right to the name, the copyright and the other personal non-property rights and non-material values, possessed by the citizen since his birth or by force of the law, shall be inalienable and untransferable in any other way. In the cases and in conformity with the procedure, stipulated by the law, the personal non-property rights and the other non-material values, possessed by the deceased person, may be exercised and protected by other persons, including the heirs of their legal owner.
2. The non-material values shall be protected in conformity with the present Code and with the other laws in the cases and in the order, stipulated by these, and also in those cases and within that scope, in which the use of the ways of protecting the civil rights (Article 12) follow from the substance of the violated non-material right and from the nature of the consequences of this violation.
Article 151. Compensation of the Moral Damage
If the citizen has been inflicted a moral damage (the physical or moral sufferings) by the actions, violating his personal non-property rights or infringing upon the other non- material values in his possession, and also in the other law-stipulated cases, the court may impose upon the culprit the duty to pay out the monetary compensation for the said damage.
When determining the size of compensation for the moral damage, the court shall take into consideration the extent of the culprit's guilt and the other circumstances, worthy of attention. The court shall also take into account the depth of the physical and moral sufferings, connected with the individual features of the person, to whom the damage has been done.
Article 152. Protection of the Honour, Dignity and Business Reputation
1. The citizen shall have the right to claim through the court that the information, discrediting his honour, dignity or business reputation be refuted, unless the person who has spread such information proves its correspondence to reality. By the demand of the interested persons, the citizen's honour and dignity shall also be liable to protection after his death.
2. If the information, discrediting the honour, dignity or business reputation of the citizen, has been spread by the mass media, it shall be refuted by the same mass media. If the said information is contained in the document, issued by an organization, the given document shall be liable to an exchange or recall.
In the other cases, the procedure for the refutation shall be ruled by the court.
3. The citizen, with respect to whom the mass media have published the information, infringing upon his rights or his law-protected interests, shall have the right to publish his answer in the same mass media.
4. If the ruling of the court has not been executed, the court shall have the right to impose upon the culprit a fine, to be exacted in the amount and in the order, stipulated by the procedural legislation, into the revenue of the Russian Federation. The payment of the fine shall not exempt the culprit from the duty to perform the action, ruled by the court decision.
5. The citizen, with respect to whom the information, discrediting his honour, dignity or business reputation has been spread, shall have the right, in addition to the refutation of the given information, also to claim the compensation of the losses and of the moral damage, caused by its spread.
6. If the person, who has spread the information, discrediting the honour, dignity or business reputation of the citizen, cannot be identified, the citizen shall have the right to turn to the court with the demand that it recognize the spread information as not corresponding to reality.
7. The rules of the present Article on the protection of the business reputation of the citizen shall be applied, correspondingly, to the protection of the business reputation of the legal entity.
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